The goal of the study is to provide high quality, reliable, and up-to-date industry-based lifecycle data to inform the public and support dialogue with external stakeholders and policy makers. It is also intended to contribute to an informed debate during the revision process of the different policy actions dealing with clean and efficient mobility.
Concerning the LNG Well-to-Tank pathway, the results are in line with the data from the WtW Study from JEC3 (19.9 g CO2-eq/MJ compared with 19.4 g CO2-eq/MJ). The analysis carried out considering the different LNG sources has also indicated a wide variability of data due to different ages and technologies used in the plants. Best practices already exist and, concerning LNG, there is a concrete capability to reduce the average value from 19.9 g CO2-eq/MJ down to 16.8 g CO2-eq/MJ (e.g. the phasing out of older liquefaction plants and technologies as in Algeria).
With a progressive alignment of the technologies even further reduction can be achieved. Conversely, the results from the EXERGIA study indicate much higher values (24.6 g CO2-eq/MJ vs 19.9 g CO2-eq/MJ), due to different and older data sources.
Considering the overall Well-to-Wheel (WtW) impact, there are significant benefits and reduced GHG emissions from passenger cars as well as light and heavy-duty vehicles when switching to CNG or LNG from petrol and diesel.
For passenger cars, on a WtW basis, natural gas reduces GHG emissions by 23% compared with petrol and by 7% compared with diesel.
In heavy-duty applications, benefits compared to diesel amount to 16% for CNG up to 15% for LNG.
In maritime applications, the use of LNG provides an overall Well-to-Wake benefit up to 21% compared with conventional HFO (Heavy-Fuel Oil) fuels.
As regards sources of methane emissions, this study also points to variations for natural gas in four different areas, which are due to factors, such as:
- different electricity grid mixes
- differences in technologies, methodologies and different supply sources that contribute to regional specificities, and
- different GHG intensity of production and processing